HumansFate
Season 6

Low & High XP

XP: 5000 & XP: 50
For all players !

NEW
BALANCE SYSTEM

PvP &
PvM

FAIR DUEL FOR ALL
CLASS

Best
Reward

System

Much
Events !

HumansFate-Mu Home

+

News

What is amino acids and vitamins
What is amino acids and vitamins


    Amino acids function: building blocks of proteins


    Proteins are of primary importance to the continuing functioning of life on Earth. Proteins catalyze the vast majority of chemical reactions that occur in the cell. They provide many of the structural elements of a cell, and they help to bind cells together into tissues. Some proteins act as contractile elements to make movement possible. Others are responsible for the transport of vital materials from the outside of the cell (“extracellular”) to its inside (“intracellular”). Proteins, in the form of antibodies, protect animals from disease and, in the form of interferon, mount an intracellular attack against viruses that have eluded destruction by the antibodies and other immune system defenses. Many hormones are proteins. Last but certainly not least, proteins control the activity of genes (“gene expression”).


   



    This plethora of vital tasks is reflected in the incredible spectrum of known proteins that vary markedly in their overall size, shape, and charge. By the end of the 19th century, scientists appreciated that, although there exist many different kinds of proteins in nature, all proteins upon their hydrolysis yield a class of simpler compounds, the building blocks of proteins, called amino acids. The simplest amino acid is called glycine, named for its sweet taste (glyco, “sugar”). It was one of the first amino acids to be identified, having been isolated from the protein gelatin in 1820. In the mid-1950s scientists involved in elucidating the relationship between proteins and genes agreed that 20 amino acids (called standard or common amino acids) were to be considered the essential building blocks of all proteins. The last of these to be discovered, threonine, had been identified in 1935.


   



    Chirality


    All the amino acids but glycine are chiral molecules. That is, they exist in two optically active asymmetric forms (called enantiomers) that are the mirror images of each other. (This property is conceptually similar to the spatial relationship of the left hand to the right hand.) One enantiomer is designated D and the other L. It is important to note that the amino acids found in proteins almost always possess only the L-configuration. This reflects the fact that the enzymes responsible for protein synthesis have evolved to utilize only the L-enantiomers. Reflecting this near universality, the prefix L is usually omitted. Some D-amino acids are found in microorganisms, particularly in the cell walls of bacteria and in several of the antibiotics. However, these are not synthesized in the ribosome.


   



    Acid-base properties


    Another important feature of free amino acids is the existence of both a basic and an acidic group at the α-carbon. Compounds such as amino acids that can act as either an acid or a base are called amphoteric. The basic amino group typically has a pKa between 9 and 10, while the acidic α-carboxyl group has a pKa that is usually close to 2 (a very low value for carboxyls). The pKa of a group is the pH value at which the concentration of the protonated group equals that of the unprotonated group. Thus, at physiological pH (about 7–7.4), the free amino acids exist largely as dipolar ions or “zwitterions” (German for “hybrid ions”; a zwitterion carries an equal number of positively and negatively charged groups). Any free amino acid and likewise any protein will, at some specific pH, exist in the form of a zwitterion. That is, all amino acids and all proteins, when subjected to changes in pH, pass through a state at which there is an equal number of positive and negative charges on the molecule. The pH at which this occurs is known as the isoelectric point (or isoelectric pH) and is denoted as pI. When dissolved in water, all amino acids and all proteins are present predominantly in their isoelectric form. Stated another way, there is a pH (the isoelectric point) at which the molecule has a net zero charge (equal number of positive and negative charges), but there is no pH at which the molecule has an absolute zero charge (complete absence of positive and negative charges). That is, amino acids and proteins are always in the form of ions; they always carry charged groups. This fact is vitally important in considering further the biochemistry of amino acids and proteins.


   



    What are vitamins, and how do they work?


   



    Vitamins are organic compounds that people need in small quantities. Most vitamins need to come from food because the body either does not produce them or produces very little. Each organism has different vitamin requirements. For example, humans need to get vitamin C from their diets — while dogs can produce all the vitamin C that they need.


   



    For humans, vitamin D is not available in large enough quantities in food. The human body synthesizes the vitamin when exposed to sunlight, and this is the best source of vitamin D. Different vitamins play different roles in the body, and a person requires a different amount of each vitamin to stay healthy.


   



    This article explains what vitamins are, what they do, and which foods are good sources. Follow the links in blue below for more information about each vitamin. Vitamins are organic substances present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs. Having too little of any particular vitamin may increase the risk of developing certain health issues. A vitamin is an organic compound, which means that it contains carbon. It is also an essential nutrient that the body may need to get from food.


   



    Fat-soluble vitamins


    Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble. The body storesTrusted Source fat-soluble vitamins in fatty tissue and the liver, and reserves of these vitamins can stay in the body for days and sometimes months. Dietary fats help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins through the intestinal tract.


   



    Water-soluble vitamins


    Water-soluble vitamins do not stayTrusted Source in the body for long and cannot be stored. They leave the body via the urine. Because of this, people need a more regular supply of water-soluble vitamins than fat-soluble ones.
more
Posted07 / 09 / 2021
What are Moisture Analyzers and How do They Work?
What are Moisture Analyzers and How do They Work?


    A moisture balance, also called a moisture analyzer, measures the amount of moisture in a substance. This is particularly helpful in food processing lab consumables as the amount of moisture can be an indicator of freshness and quality for some foods. These analyzers are also commonly used in environmental, pharmaceutical, and materials science labs. There are several techniques that may be used to measure moisture. Some techniques used include measuring water vapor released following combustion of the sample, measuring the difference in weight after removal of moisture from the sample, and measuring the equilibrium of water vapor of the sample in a closed system. Some things to take into consideration when purchasing a moisture analytical balance include capacity, precision, speed, method of measurement, software, and whether the samples to be measured come in solid or liquid form.


   



    Moisture analyzers, sometimes called “moisture balances”, are used to measure the moisture content in various types of samples including solids, liquids, and gases. Trace moisture in solids must be controlled for plastics, pharmaceuticals and heat treatment processes. Gas or liquid measurement applications include dry air, hydrocarbon processing, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, dielectric gases such as those in transformers and power plants, and natural gas pipeline transport.


   



    Due to the slow pace of traditional and manual laboratory moisture testing methods, automated moisture analyzers have been developed and can reduce the time necessary for a test from hours to just a few minutes.


   



    Moisture analyzers are utilized in different industries for many different purposes. They can be used in food industry to control the moisture. Excess amount of moisture in food may lead to staleness or bacterial growth. Furthermore, there are many food items which are sold by their weight; thus, it is important to make sure customers aren’t overpaying for water weight. On the other hand, too little moisture can reduce the calorie count or make the food dry. Moisture is an important factor affecting the consistency, taste, shelf appearance and many other factors in food.


   



    Moisture analyzers, as industrial weighing scale, are also frequently used in quality control and other laboratories. Moisture analysis is used in many fields to determine the water content in crude oil, fuel, sewage sludge and many other chemicals, solids and liquids.


   



    Most moisture analyzers have a computer interface to assist with the observation and analyse in the drying process and its effects on the sample. They have the capacity to save the tests in their memory to repeat frequent testing parameters without having to set them up over and over again to assist with the elimination of down time.


   



    How moisture analyzers work


    Moisture analyzers utilize Loss On Drying (LOD) method to measure moisture. In this method, the moisture analyzer weighs a sample, heats it up to dry it, and weighs it again once it’s dry. The weight after drying is subtracted from the weight before, so the loss of moisture is determined using the loss of mass.


   



    The heat generating system can vary from analyzer to analyzer. Some moisture analyzers use halogen and some use infrared or glass-free metal heaters positioned above a precision electronic balance. Halogen moisture analyzers are quick, efficient and responsive. These types of moisture analyzers are ideal to use where there is no single setting that heats all samples evenly.


   



    Density balances decide the density in liquid and solid materials as per the buoyancy method. Density balances are mainly electronic, maintain accuracy and beneficial to know the density in ceramics, glass, rubber, plastics, sintered metals and other non-metallic materials.


   



    The method of density determination, like textile balance, is denoted by high veracity and quick results. Liquid Density is measured via the buoyancy test with the glass element. On the other hand, the density in solid materials is decided by using the weight and volume of a sample.


   



    In Density Balances, the weighing unit determines the weight. The density of the Liquid must be ensured prior because the volume is obtained when the pressure of the sample is put in the liquid.


   



    The process of selecting chromatography sample vials for your laboratory can be complicated because there are many factors to consider as well as numerous options to choose from. This article offers guidance by providing an overview of chromatography vial options and how each can suit specific needs.


   



    When choosing a chromatography vial, the product material is of paramount importance. Depending upon the use, either glass or plastic testing vials may be best. Begin by considering the facts and benefits regarding glass ultra clean vials.


   



    Glass Vials


    Glass vials are pure, meaning they have no traces of contaminants within their components, for example metal, which could potentially interfere with an experiment. Glass is also heat resistant, which is vital because glass chromatography vials may be heated to over 500 degrees Celsius. That makes glass vials a common choice for many labs.


   



    Plastic Vials


    Plastic vials have their own set of specifications and benefits. It is important to note that the type of plastic makes a difference in the storage vial and its uses. Plastic vials can be made of either polypropylene or poly methyl pentene (PMP). Polypropylene is the most popular plastic material available. To put it in perspective, the recyclable containers you store your dinner leftovers in are commonly made of this as well as the plastic lid on a box of Tic Tacs. Polypropylene vials have a heat resistance of up to 135 degrees Celsius, are translucent and are used commonly in chromatography experiments.


   



    PMP has a higher heat resistance—up to 175 degrees Celsius—and is transparent, which increases visibility of the sample within the vial. Aside from scientific uses, PMP is used in the making of cookware, microwave components and even some windows.


   



    Plastic vials provide the benefits of good chemical resistance, light weight construction, durability and affordability.
more
Posted07 / 09 / 2021
Why Get Home Security Cameras?
Why Get Home Security Cameras?


    Home security cameras keep watch over your home from both inside and outside, acting as an extra pair of eyes and ears to monitor your property. In this guide, we'll look at the benefits of installing indoor and outdoor security cameras, from their potential to deter criminals to other applications such as pet and baby monitors. We'll also explore the necessary and optional features of security cameras, as well as their drawbacks. Finally, we’ll discuss some of the other ways to protect your home if you’re not sure about installing cameras.


   



    What Are the Benefits of Home Security Cameras?


    Peace of mind is one of the main benefits of security cameras, whether you choose to install cameras that are wired or wireless. They can increase your home security by letting you check in on your property from wherever you are, see a live feed of your home on a smartphone or computer, and get immediate alerts of any unusual activity.


   



    While the number of burglaries in the U.S. continued to decline recently, the value of the property stolen increased in 2018 to $2,799 (the most recent year for which this information is available). These studies indicate that although burglary rates are dropping, more valuable items are being stolen. This makes home security cameras an important tool in our home protection kit, as they can help with recovery as well as detection.


   



    Security cameras are recognized as an excellent deterrent to criminals. The experts we spoke with don't recommend relying solely on cameras for security, saying a complete home security system is the best defense. However, cameras are still important. “If I had to choose, I would go with an alarm system over a camera system first,” says Jordan Frankel, vice president of security consulting firm Global Security Experts Inc. “But I do think cameras are a great addition, primarily because they're a psychological deterrence. A bad guy sees the camera and may skip your home and move on to an easier target.”


   



    Research backs this up. A study of incarcerated burglars by the University of North Carolina at Charlotte’s Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology showed that indicators of increased security, such as outdoor surveillance cameras, were considered by most burglars when selecting a target.


   



    Home security cameras aren’t just useful for policing your property; they’re also helpful for keeping an eye on children and pets when you can’t be there. A security camera with facial recognition by your front door can send you a push notification saying, “John is at the front door,” so you know your child is home safely. Two-way audio on indoor cameras can act as an intercom, allowing you to see and talk to your family when you’re not home.


   



    For more on the benefits for home security cameras check out How to Buy Home Security Cameras and How Home Security Cameras Work.


   



    What Are the Drawbacks of Home Security Cameras?


    Privacy is a big concern when putting cameras around your home. “Whatever it records is technically on the internet forever,” says David VanWert, a home technology consultant and founder of VanWert Technology Designs Inc. “Once it's stored in the cloud, in theory, it never goes away.” But as VanWert points out, you likely already have a number of devices in your home with cameras that can record what you’re doing, such as smartphones and computers. There are steps you can take to minimize the security and privacy risks of installing security cameras, however. If you're concerned, consider only installing cameras on the outside of your home, and don’t put them in personal spaces such as bedrooms.


   



    Liability can be another drawback. “If you;re just watching your own property, you’re probably fine,” says Jeff Welch, a former corrections officer and founder of Grab The Axe security consultants LLC. “But if your neighbor believes or has evidence that you have one pointed towards his bedroom window or front door, then you have an issue on your end for liability for their privacy.”


   



    Also, if you record someone’s conversation without their knowledge – even on your own property – you could be breaking the law, depending on where you live. Denise Howell, an internet and technology lawyer, says that under federal law, as long as you’re a party to the conversation and you consent to it being recorded, it doesn’t matter what the other parties think. However, several states have two-party consent laws that make it illegal to record audio conversations without the consent of everyone involved. Plus, it’s almost always illegal to record a conversation if you’re not participating in it at all. A good rule of thumb is to let any visitors know when they are being recorded and consider posting notices on your property indicating it’s being surveilled by audio and video recording technology. Additionally, specific features such as facial recognition (found on Nest cameras) are illegal in some states. Check the applicable laws where you live.


   



    Another drawback is that home security cameras can be costly. While their prices have come down a lot in recent years, to outfit your entire property with security cameras can cost thousands of dollars. Additionally, these high-value items on the outside of your house can be a target for theft themselves.


   



    Are Home Security Cameras Good for Home Protection?


    A home security camera system is an excellent tool for home protection, and it can work both as a deterrent and a recovery tool. Burglars are wary of properties with visible security cameras. Plus, if a crime does occur, security cameras can help gather evidence. From property damage to potentially identifying criminals who break in, if you capture the action on camera, you're more likely to be able to remedy it.


   



    If you want to be able to identify cars, people, and other moving objects, it’s worth investing in a camera with super or ultra-high definition video (2K or 4K, respectively). This technology uses more pixels in the image, meaning you can zoom in to see more detail on license plates and identify more physical characteristics. An HD or full HD camera won’t get you that type of clarity, especially at night.


   



    Ultimately, home security cameras work best to protect your property when they're integrated with a home security system. To save their batteries, wireless security cameras only start to record when they detect motion, which means they may not record everything you'd want them to. With a home security system, cameras, especially mini camera, can be set to start recording as soon as any part of the security system is triggered, such as a contact sensor, a glass-break sensor, or a motion sensor. This makes it more likely the cameras will record everything that’s happening on your property and not just the few seconds of motion that occurred right in front of them.


   



    For more on home security systems, read our guide to Best Home Security Systems of 2021.


   



    What Are the Most Important Home Security Camera Features?


    First, decide whether you want your home security camera to record footage continuously or based on a trigger, such as motion. Recording continuously will make sure yo don't miss anything, but it will require a lot of Wi-Fi bandwidth and isn't suitable for battery-powered wire-free cameras. The footage should be stored either on the camera itself or on a cloud-based server where you can access it for a period of time. The camera also should alert you to motion by sending a notification to your smartphone or tablet and quickly deliver clear, good-quality video of the event. “Any camera that can record footage at full high definition or above is going to be good,” says VanWert. “Some can record at 4 and 5 megapixels, and then you’re talking about 4K resolution. It depends on what level of detail you're looking for, such as whether you want to be able to zoom in on your camera and see a license plate.”


   



    The power source is another key feature of a security camera. If you're buying a wireless camera, look for one that's powered by batteries or AC (which means it plugs into a wall outlet). AC power is preferable but not always available where you want to install a camera. As a result, the ability to use both allows for maximum placement flexibility.


   



    What Are Less Important Home Security Camera Features?


    Continuous video recording, also called 24/7 recording, is a luxury that you most likely don’t need. Unless you want to record every moment of the day on your property, you can skip this feature, which can be expensive on wireless indoor surveillance cameras and uses a lot of Wi-Fi bandwidth and internet data.


   



    Another feature you probably don't need is an extremely wide field of view, which can distort the image. A 130-degree field of view is usually sufficient.


   



    Finally, modern Wi-Fi security IP cameras have a host of smart features to give you more detailed information about what’s going on in your home without you having to pull up the video feed. These software-based features tend to increase the price of the camera and aren't essential, although they're nice to have. They include features such as person detection, which allows the camera to alert you that a person is on your property, rather than just telling you motion was detected. The ability to set activity zones means the camera will only notify you about motion in a certain area of the image (ignoring, for example, a tree that frequently blows in the wind). Other nice-to-have smart features include the ability to work with smart home systems, such as Amazon’s Alexa Google’s Assistant and Apple’s HomeKit, and to integrate with smart door locks to allow for secure in-home deliveries.


   



    What Are the Privacy Concerns of Home Security Cameras?


    Cameras can record video all the time or when they detect motion, which means every time you or someone else walks into your garden or past your video doorbell. Before installing cameras in and around your home, make sure every member of your household knows they're there and is comfortable with them. Cameras can be hacked, with your footage monitored or even posted to the internet. However, the measures we discuss in How to Keep Your Security Cameras Safe will reduce this risk considerably.


   



    We strongly recommend that you enable any built-in privacy features that the camera offers, and it can be perfect as baby monitor. For example, cameras can be turned off in the mobile app or geofencing technology can turn them off automatically when someone in your family with a smartphone is home.


   



    What Are Some Uses of Home Security Cameras Besides Preventing Burglary?


    Today’s home security cameras, including outdoor surveillance camera, are multifunctional and can be used for much more than just monitoring your property for intruders. Here are just a few other uses for home security cameras:


   



    Baby Monitor: Set up an indoor camera in your baby’s room and view a live feed wherever you are, as long as you have an internet connection. You’ll need a camera capable of recording 24/7 and it will need to be plugged in, but as long as it has two-way audio and will send alerts on sound or motion it will work as a reliable monitor.


    Pet Cam: Indoor, outdoor or other cameras can be used to keep an eye on your dogs, cats, chicken coop, or bunny hutch. Some cameras can specifically alert you to the noise of a dog barking so you can talk to your pet with a two-way talk feature.


    Wildlife Cam: Place a battery-powered camera with night vision capabilities at the end of your garden and keep an eye on destructive deer or predatory raccoons, or enjoy the sights and sounds of nocturnal nature on your property.


    Smart Home Trigger: If you have other smart home devices in your home, your camera, or action monitor, can be linked with them so they can respond automatically. For example, the motion sensor in an outdoor camera can turn smart lights inside if it detects motion in your driveway when you come home.


    What Are Some Other Ways to Prevent Burglary?


    One of the most effective ways to prevent burglary is to install a home security system with door and window sensors and a connection to a monitoring station, so the authorities can be notified even if you're not there. Less expensive ways to prevent burglary include installing basic physical security devices such as padlocks, door and window locks, grates, bars, and bolts on any accessible entries. “If you have a limited budget, focus on physical security devices, such as a security door brace that prevents a door from being kicked, says security consultant Frankel. Another option is to apply clear security film to windows to make them shatter-resistant.


   



    Light is also a good deterrent. Outdoor lighting, motion-activated or programmed to come on at sunset and turn off at sunrise, can keep your home illuminated and make it harder for a thief to stay out of sight. Keeping your landscaping tidy and trimmed will help remove potential hiding spots.


   



    Maintaining signs of occupancy even when you are gone can help deter potential thieves. Some ways to do this include using automated shades and programmed smart lighting to simulate someone being home, and making sure to cancel any newspaper or package deliveries when you're gone. A loud (although not necessarily large) dog is also a great deterrent.
more
Posted07 / 09 / 2021
Different kinds of industrial used belts
Different kinds of industrial used belts


    Conveyor Systems are mechanical devices or assemblies that transport material with minimal effort. While there are many different kinds of conveyor systems, they usually consist of a frame that supports either rollers, wheels, or a belt, upon which materials move from one place to another. They may be powered by a motor, by gravity, or manually. These material handling systems come in many different varieties to suit the different products or materials that need to be transported.


   



    Conveyor Belt System Speed/Rated Speed


    Belt conveyors are typically rated in terms of belt speed in ft/min. while powered roller conveyors described the linear velocity in similar units to a package, carton, etc. moving over the powered rollers. Rated speed applies to apron/slat conveyors and drag/chain/tow conveyors as well.


   



    Belt Conveyors are material handling systems that use continuous belts to convey products or material. The belt is extended in an endless loop between two end-pulleys.  Usually, one or both ends have a roll underneath. The conveyor belting is supported by either a metal slider pan for light loads where no friction would be applied to the belt to cause drag or on rollers. Power is provided by motors that use either variable or constant speed reduction gears.


   



    The belts themselves can be made from numerous materials, which should correspond to the conditions under which the belt will be operating. Common conveyor belting materials include rubber, plastic, leather, fabric, and metal. Transporting a heavier load means a thicker and stronger construction of conveyor belting material is required. Belt conveyors are typically powered and can be operated at various speeds depending on the throughput required. The conveyors can be operated horizontally or can be inclined as well. Belt conveyors can be troughed for bulk or large materials.


   



    A rubber v-belt is a flexible machine element used to transmit power between a set of grooved pulleys or sheaves. They are characterized as belts having a trapezium cross-section. V-belts are the most widely used belt drives since their geometry causes them to wedge tightly into the groove as the tension is increased. As the belt wedges into the groove, friction between the surface of the belt is increased, allowing high torques to be transmitted. The increased friction minimizes the loss of power through slippage.


   



    Before going deeper into v-belts, it is important to know an overview of belt drives. Belt drives are machine elements that are used to transmit power between two or more rotating shafts, usually with parallel axes of rotation. The belts are looped over pulleys attached to the driver and follower shafts. These pulleys are placed at a certain distance to create an initial tension on the belt. When in operation, the friction causes the belt to grip onto the pulley. The rotation of the driver pulley increases the tension on one side of the belt creating a tight side. This tight side applies a tangential force to the follower pulley. Torque is then applied to the driven shaft. Opposite the tight side is the slack side where the belt experiences less tension.


   



    There are many types of belt drives used today., such as agricultural harvester V belts, The earliest type of belt drive uses a flat belt made from leather or fabric. Flat belts operate satisfactorily in low-power applications such as farm equipment, mining, and logging. At higher loads and speeds, they tend to slip on the surface of the pulleys and climb out of the pulley. Another early type of belt drive is a rope drive made from cotton or hemp. Rope drives are used on two pulleys with a V-shaped groove. This solved the problem of climbing out of the pulley enabling belt drives to be used over large distances. Later, this was developed into round beltswhich are made from elastomeric materials such as rubber, nylon, or urethane. The development of these elastomeric materials also brought the progress of belt drive technology. Belts such as v-belts, ribbed belts, multi-groove belts, and timing beltswere made to solve the problems of previous belt drives.


   



    An entire v-belt can be regarded as a composite material composed of different types of rubber and reinforcements. In its usual application, a v-belt is subjected to combined tensile and compressive stresses. The top side of a v-belt is subjected to a tensile force directed longitudinally, while the bottom side is compressed due to the compression against the grooves and bending as a belt segment passes the pulley. Moreover, a different type of material is also needed at the surface of the belt. Ideal material for the surface must have a high coefficient of friction and increased wear resistance.


   



    Understanding All the Automotive Belts in Your Car


   



    Your car’s engine has a number of mechanical parts attached to it that perform essential functions like delivering power (the alternator), cooling your engine (the water pump), helping you to drive more easily (the power steering pump) and keeping you comfortable (the air conditioner compressor). Without a drive belt, none of these parts would work.


   



    The purpose of drive belts is to deliver power between different engine components. They work by means of friction between the belt and pulley, which is why loose belts can cause various components to work poorly, or not at all.


   



    That’s a very basic overview of car belts, and by no means all-inclusive. Let’s talk in a bit more detail about different types of belts and how they work in your car.


   



    Some vehicles have multiple belts, called v-belts, including motorcycle belts, that come off the crankshaft of the engine to drive the alternator, the air conditioning compressor, the power steering pump and the water pump. In older vehicles, v-belts were the standard.


   



    Timing belts


    The timing belt is also sometimes called a camshaft drive belt or a Gilmer belt. It is a notched belt, made of rubber, that enables the crankshaft to turn the camshaft, and opens and closes the engine valves synchronously with the pistons. In late model vehicles, the timing belt has essentially replaced the metal timing chain.


   



    The advantage of the timing belt over the timing chain is that if the timing belt fails, there is less potential for damage to valves and pistons.


   



    Symptoms, causes, and effects of failed or failing drive belts


    V-belts: If a v-belt is failing, it will squeak, and accessories may not work properly. If it fails, the accessories that it powers will stop working. Causes can include ordinary wear or fluid contamination. Belts are also widely used in other electronics, like lawn mower belts.


   



    Serpentine belts: If a serpentine belt is failing, accessories may not work properly, car may be hard to start or not start at all, and the belt may emit a squeaking, screeching or chirping sound. Causes can include cracking, wear or stripping, fluid contamination and poor belt tension.


   



    Timing belts: If a timing belt is failing, your car may idle rough, or you may hear a slapping sound from the motor compartment. If it fails, your car will not work at all. There is also a possibility of serious damage to the valves and pistons. Causes can include wear, slipping or fluid contamination.
more
Posted07 / 09 / 2021
How prefab houses work?
How prefab houses work?


    With historic wildfires sweeping the West Coast and burning over 3.2 million acres in California alone, it is clear in 2020 that the climate change emergency is upon us. Dvele Cofounder and CEO Kurt Goodjohn's purpose is to create a new generation of ultra-energy-efficient, self-powered prefabricated homes that will inspire society’s transition to a clean energy future. The company not only manufactures the prefab container houses, but also has designed technology to ensure that the homes can be reproduced consistently and affordably at scale. 


   



    All Dvele prefab homes are completely self-powered by solar energy, thus addressing climate change and eliminating dependency on the power grid. The homes utilize advanced materials and assembly techniques in order to ensure that they require 84% less energy per square foot than a traditionally-built home. With such efficiency, Dvele homes are capable of utilizing the solar array and battery backup system to make them fully grid-independent and insulated from the inconveniences and safety risks associated with long-term power outages, not to mention significant financial savings.


   



    “We've redesigned the home from the ground up,” says Goodjohn. “Our approach not only results in ultra-efficient living environments that can generate more energy than it takes to operate, but also ensures the safety, health and wellness of occupants.”


   



    Kurt Goodjohn and his brother Kris Goodjohn stumbled into the construction industry, starting off building luxury homes using traditional, stick-built construction. Quickly, they realized how outdated, inefficient, and uninspiring these methods were. They had seen prefab construction projects on a trip to Europe and wondered why the homes weren’t more popular in North America. So over beers one night, they decided to found a company in the prefab industry.


   



    Now, Kurt Goodjohn feels he has tapped into his life purpose. “I have always been a strong advocate for the notion that everyone should leave the world better off than they found it,” he says. “At Dvele, we are accomplishing this by disrupting an age-old industry and bringing it into the modern age. Our company contributes to minimizing the overall environmental impact of homes and enhances the way they function to benefit the health and wellness of occupants.”


   



    As a result, Goodjohn never feels that he really is “working” because he is pursuing something truly important. “There’s absolutely nothing my brother and I would rather be doing than building this company. We passionately believe that what we are doing will have a positive impact on the world and we have an unwavering determination to lead the change necessary in the new home space,” he says.


   



    In the beginning, the greatest challenge the Goodjohns faced was getting other people to believe in the value of what they were doing with Dvele. However, they remained determined. “Trust your gut,” Kurt Goodjohn advises other aspiring entrepreneurs and changemakers. “When you're young, you really don't have a lot of experience, you don't know what will work or what will fail. So, it's actually the best time to just do what you think is right and learn as you go. My brother and I wouldn't be doing what we are doing today had we listened to all of the naysayers who told us it could never be done.”


   



    Prefab house construction


   



    Prefab houses are constructed from the inside out. They are manufactured in the following order in a couple of days or less, with inspections following each step (the process can take longer if the buyer has customized the home):


   



    The floors are assembled first. There is usually a wood frame under the floor for attachment of wall panels.


    Wall panels are attached next with bolts and nails. Panels are insulated and windows cut out before the panels are attached.


    Once the house structure is in place, the plumbing, electrical wiring and drywall (including the ceiling) are installed.


    The roof, typically constructed in another part of the factory, is set on top of the walls. In some prefabs, workers attach the roof on-site after the rest of the house is constructed.


    Exterior and interior finishes are added, including siding, cabinets, vanities and backsplashes. The walls are also painted.


    Once the housing units are constructed, they need to get to the owner's land. The transportation of the modules is limited by roadways, overhangs and power lines. The builders have to scout out all these factors before delivery, but in general each unit must be less than 16 feet wide, 60 feet long and 11 feet high. Because travel can be unpredictable, buyers are usually on site with independent contractors to inspect the units for scrapes and cracks.


   



    The house has to have someplace to sit, so a foundation is required. Before the home arrives, homeowners must have the land excavated and have a foundation in place. The foundation can be poured concrete, concrete blocks, basements or crawl spaces.


   



    The house arrives and is placed by crane on the foundation. Workers use heavy-duty cables to move the units, which come together at points called marriage walls. The marriage walls tie the house together and ensure that it is level and properly bolted together. At this point, the roof is placed if it was not factory-installed. A hinged roof, also made in the factory, is unfolded onto the house. The entire delivery and placement of the house can usually be completed in about a day. After that, decks, staircases and extras can be installed.


   



    Variables such as customization, financing and factory schedules can contribute to the process, but from choosing the house to completion, most manufacturers give a timeframe of a few months. 


   



    Modern prefab houses


   



    Although the concept of modern prefab design has been around since the 60s, the architectural movement didn't take off until early 2000. As technological advances like SIP panels (structural insulating that is precut and can be locked together) were made and interest in residential architectural design blossomed, architects turned their attention to prefab houses. The goal was to create a home that could be transported to a building site, be easily erected and look like modern architecture -- all within a reasonable budget.


   



    To further stoke the flames of interest, Dwell magazine held a modern prefab invitational in 2003 to create an economical flat pack container house that could be mass-produced. Allison Arieff, the former editor of Dwell, had written the 2002 book Prefab, which profiled modern prefab prototypes. Nathan Wieler and Ingrid Tung contacted Arieff with the hopes of obtaining more information about how to build a modern prefab home. Instead, Arieff asked the couple if they'd be interested in using their land in Pittsboro, N.C., as the site for a design competition. With an initial construction budget of $200,000, the couple agreed and soon was helping the magazine create the criteria for the home and judging designs [source: Boston Globe].


   



    The Dwell invitational created an opportunity to take the modern prefab concept and make it a reality, with the goal of introducing mass-produced prefab homes with architectural modern flair to the market. However, challenges remained. The architectural firm Resolution: 4 Architecture delivered the design, but the project went $50,000 over budget, resulting in the reduction of the homes footprint in order to stay within budget [source: Dwell].


   



    The cost of a modern prefab home remains the chief complaint today, with the average modern prefab home running about $175 to $250 per square foot [source: BusinessWeek]. In fact, Dwell magazine is now offering modern prefab homes through their company Empyrean. Proponents of the movement point out that although many of the products available cost as much as, if not more than, stick-built homes, homeowners can save money in design and construction costs. Many architect-designed homes exceed $300 per square foot, not including design fees [source: The New Yorker] . After all, you're not paying for one-of-a-kind architecture. The architect is reselling the design, and even if modifications are needed, those costs are usually small.


   



    When it comes to mass-producing affordable modern prefab homes, Rocio Romero is one of the most recognized architects. Romero's company, located in Perryville, Mo., creates flat-packed cubelike houses with sleek, modern exteriors. House kits range from $23,650 to $45,255 [source: Rocio Romero]. Finishes and amenities also impact the price. Romero uses a series of interlocking panels for ease of building construction. The company also sends a videotape along with instructions for the general contractor or the handy homeowner who goes it alone.


   



    While some prefabs qualify as "traditional homes" to mortgage companies because they use some of the methods of stick-built homes, others do not. But many new modern prefabs are being introduced to home-builders, with shipping container room included. The Swedish company, IKEA, introduced its modern prefab home, the BoKlok, to the European market. In 2006, the Walker Art Museum presented an exhibit around modern prefab, "Some Assembly Required: Contemporary Prefabricated Houses." And as the market demands more environment- and wallet-friendly housing choices, the modern prefab market should continue to grow in the scope of its offerings.
more
Posted07 / 09 / 2021
Loading...